Reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid

The dissolution of zinc in hydrochloric acid produces hydrogen gas.

Mercury

Mercury is innermost and smallest planet of the Solar System.

Saturn

Saturn is the second largest planet in the Solar System, easily recognisable by its rings.

Glacier (intermediate)

A glacier is a large body of ice that forms from snow, and is in constant, slow motion.

Jamestown (17th century)

Jamestown, founded in 1607, was the first permanent English settlement on the east coast of North America.

Medieval smithy

The work of smiths – one of the first professions in history – became even more important in the Middle Ages.

Venice in the Middle Ages

Medieval Venice owed its wealth to its flourishing maritime trade.

Cannon operation (18th century)

The cannon was an important type of firearms at the beginning of modern history, widespread both on land and water.

Viking longship (10th century)

These excellent shipbuilders and sailors travelled great distances on the seas and rivers.

Medieval dungeon

A wide variety of torture devices were in use in medieval dungeons.

Working-class district (19th century)

Typical working-class districts with unhealthy living conditions were built at the time of the Industrial Revolution.

Guillotine

The device designed to carry out executions more humanely than before was named after a French doctor.

Olympia (5th century BC)

The Olympic Games, held in the town every 4th year after 776 BC made it one of the centres of ancient Greece.

Formation of hydrogen molecules

Hydrogen atoms within hydrogen molecules are held together by a covalent bond.

Soap

Fatty acid molecules consist of a polar head and a non-polar tail, therefore they are suitable for removing fat stains.

Chlorination of methane by a substitution reaction

During the substitution reaction the hydrogen atoms of methane are substituted with chlorine atoms, the by-product is hydrogen chloride.

Calcium carbonate (CaCO₃)

Limestone is a widely and diversely used material.

Tanning, skin cancer

The topmost layer of our skin is the epidermis, which contains melanocytes.

Solar power station

Solar power stations convert solar energy into electricity.

Farming techniques

Farming techniques evolved with the development of human civilisation in the Middle Ages and the Modern Age.

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