Leonardo da Vinci’s inventions – Armoured car

The design for the armoured car features the most important military requirements: reliability, portability and great firepower.

Leonardo da Vinci’s inventions – Flapping wing (1487–1489)

Leonardo based the design of the flapping wing on birds' wings and a faulty hypothesis.

Leonardo da Vinci’s inventions -– Siege engines

Leonardo was not only a master artist, but also an accomplished military engineer.

Hydroxide ion (OH⁻)

A compound ion formed when a water molecule releases a proton.

Battle of Muhi (11–12 April 1241)

The devastating defeat of the Hungarians in the battle against the Mongolians was the result of several bad decisions.

Hydronium ion (H₃O⁺)

The presence of hydronium ions relative to hydroxide ions determines a solution´s pH.

Ethane (C₂H₆)

The second member in the homologous series of straight-chain alkanes.

Nitrogen monoxide (Nitric oxide) (NO)

A colourless, heavier-than-air gas, an intermediate in the production of nitric acid.

Nitrate ion (NO₃⁻)

A compound ion, the main source of nitrogen for plants.

Trans-2-butene (C₄H₈)

A colourless, heavier-than-air gas. Its geometric isomer is cis-2-butene.

Bromine (Br₂)

One of the halogens, it may cause skin irritation.

Sulphate ion (SO₄²⁻)

A compound ion produced when sulphuric acid releases protons.

Benzene (C₆H₆)

Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon.

Leonardo da Vinci’s inventions - Flying machine (1488–1489)

The aim of this extraordinarily complex study was to mimic the different phases of the flight of birds.

Carbamide (urea) (CO(NH₂)₂)

An organic compound in the urine of mammals, used in the production of fertilisers as a source of nitrogen.

Ichthyosaur

Fish-like marine dinosaurs which resembled dolphins; a good example of convergent evolution.

Typical Central European flat in the 1950s

Typical Central European flats in the 1950s consisted of a single room, a kitchen and a bathroom.

Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) (C₅H₈)

Synthetic rubber is produced by the polymerisation of isoprene.

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